Questions of Periodization Nature and causes of changes The fall of classical empires led to decentralization of government in China and in Europe leading up to the period of C. The collapse of the Han dynasty in China opened the door to the spread and appeal of Buddhism into China, since the Confucian authority was no longer centralized. In the Western Roman Empire, the fall of the west left a power vacuum that set the stage for the rise of fragmented regional kingdoms. In India, the tradition of weak centralized power coupled with the Hindu caste system contributed to the social stability after the fall of the Gupta empire.
Visit Website Did you know? One of the most extraordinary aspects of the Byzantine Empire was its longevity: It was the only organized state west of China to survive without interruption from ancient times until the beginning of the modern age.
Visit Website Though Constantine ruled over a unified Roman Empire, this unity proved illusory after his death in InEmperor Valentinian I again divided the empire into western and eastern sections, putting himself in power in the west and his brother Valens in the east.
The fate of the two regions diverged greatly over the next several centuries. In the west, constant attacks from German invaders such as the Visigoths broke the struggling empire down piece by piece until Italy was the only territory left under Roman control.
Inthe barbarian Odoacer overthrew the last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustusand Rome had fallen. Byzantine Empire Flourishes The eastern half of the Roman Empire proved less vulnerable to external attack, thanks in part to its geographic location. It also The byzantine empire and western europe greatly from a stronger administrative center and internal political stability, as well as great wealth compared with other states of the early medieval period.
Eastern Roman Empire As a result of these advantages, the Eastern Roman Empire, variously known as the Byzantine Empire or Byzantium, was able to survive for centuries after the fall of Rome.
Though Byzantium was ruled by Roman law and Roman political institutions, and its official language was Latin, Greek was also widely spoken, and students received education in Greek history, literature and culture. In terms of religion, the Council of Chalcedon in officially established the division of the Christian world into five patriarchates, each ruled by a patriarch: Rome where the patriarch would later call himself popeConstantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem.
The Byzantine emperor was the patriarch of Constantinople, and the head of both church and state. Even after the Islamic empire absorbed Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem in the seventh century, the Byzantine emperor would remain the spiritual leader of most eastern Christians.
Justinian I Justinian I, who took power in and would rule until his death inwas the first great ruler of the Byzantine Empire. Many great monuments of the empire would be built under Justinian, including the spectacular domed Church of Holy Wisdom, or Hagia Sophia.
Justinian also reformed and codified Roman law, establishing a Byzantine legal code that would endure for centuries and help shape the modern concept of the state. Debts incurred through war had left the empire in dire financial straits, however, and his successors were forced to heavily tax Byzantine citizens in order to keep the empire afloat.
During the seventh and eighth centuries, attacks from the Persian Empire and from Slavs, combined with internal political instability and economic regression, threatened the stability of the empire. A new, even more serious threat arose in the form of Islamfounded by the prophet Muhammad in Mecca in InMuslim armies began their assault on the Byzantine Empire by storming into Syria.
Iconoclasm During the eighth and early ninth centuries, Byzantine emperors beginning with Leo III in spearheaded a movement that denied the holiness of icons, or religious images, and prohibited their worship or veneration.
Though it stretched over less territory, Byzantium had more control over trade, more wealth and more international prestige than under Justinian. The strong imperial government patronized Byzantine art, including now-cherished Byzantine mosaics. Rulers also began restoring churches, palaces and other cultural institutions and promoting the study of ancient Greek history and literature.
Greek became the official language of the state, and a flourishing culture of monasticism centered on Mount Athos in northeastern Greece. Monks administered many institutions orphanages, schools, hospitals in everyday life, and Byzantine missionaries won many converts to Christianity among the Slavic peoples of the central and eastern Balkans including Bulgaria and Serbia and Russia.
The Crusades The end of the 11th century saw the beginning of the Crusadesthe series of holy wars waged by European Christians against Muslims in the Near East from to As armies from France, Germany and Italy poured into Byzantium, Alexius tried to force their leaders to swear an oath of loyalty to him in order to guarantee that land regained from the Turks would be restored to his empire.
After Western and Byzantine forces recaptured Nicaea in Asia Minor from the Turks, Alexius and his army retreated, drawing accusations of betrayal from the Crusaders.This influenced touched both the areas of Northern Africa and Western Europe the same way it touched the Roman Empire.
The introduction of multicultural interaction with surrounding lands helped result in the advancement of the Byzantine Empire in ways similar to how the Romans rose to power/5(7). Aug 24, · Watch video · The Byzantine Empire was a vast and powerful civilization with origins that can be traced to A.D., when the Roman emperor Constantine I dedicated a “New Rome” on the site of the ancient.
Byzantine Empire (4th century - C.E.) - This was a continuation of the Eastern Roman Empire and is the only survivor of the classical period. Emperor Justinian () attempted to reconquer the western portion, but failed.
The Byzantine Empire was a vast and powerful civilization with origins that can be traced to A.D., when the Roman emperor Constantine I dedicated a “New Rome” on the site of the ancient. The Byzantine Empire was the continuation of the Eastern Roman Empire in the Greek-speaking, eastern part of the Mediterranean.
Christian in nature, it was perennially at war with the Muslims, Flourishing during the reign of the Macedonian emperors, its demise was the consequence of attacks by Seljuk Turks, Crusaders, and Ottoman Turks.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).