History[ edit ] Emil Kraepelin originally described oniomania and he and Bleuler both included the syndrome in their influential early psychiatric textbooks. People who score highly on compulsive buying scales tend to understand their feelings poorly and have low tolerance for unpleasant psychological states such as negative moods. Compulsive buying is not limited to people who spend beyond their means; it also includes people who spend an inordinate amount of time shopping or who chronically think about buying things but never purchase them.
Xylophagia wood, or derivates of wood such as paper This pattern of eating should last at least one month to fit the diagnosis of pica. For example, lead poisoning may result from the ingestion of paint or paint-soaked plasterhairballs may cause intestinal obstruction and Toxoplasma or Toxocara infections may follow ingestion of feces or dirt.
Sensory, physiological, cultural and psychosocial perspectives have also been used by some to explain the causation of pica. Ingestion of kaolin white clay among African-American women in the US state of Georgia shows the practice there to be a DSM-IV " culture-bound syndrome " and "not selectively associated with other psychopathology".
However, because pica can occur in people who have lower than normal nutrient levels and poor nutrition malnutritionthe health care provider should test blood levels of iron and zinc.
Hemoglobin can also be checked to test for anemia. Lead levels should always be checked in children who may have eaten paint or objects covered in lead-paint dust. The health care provider should test for infection if the person has been eating contaminated soil or animal waste.
In such instances, pica should not be noted as an additional diagnosis. An initial approach often involves screening for and, if necessary, treating any mineral deficiencies or other comorbid conditions. First, there is pica as a result of social attention. If their pica is a result of obtaining a favorite item, a strategy may be used where the person is able to receive the item or activity without eating inedible items.
If pica is a way for a person to escape an activity or situation, the reason why the person wants to escape the activity should be examined and the person should be moved to a new situation.
If pica is motivated by sensory feedback, an alternative method of feeling that sensation should be provided. Other non-medication techniques might include other ways for oral stimulation such as gum. Foods such as popcorn have also been found helpful.
Many use aversion therapy, where the patient learns through positive reinforcement which foods are good and which ones they should not eat.
Often treatment is similar to the treatment of obsessive compulsive or addictive disorders such as exposure therapy. In some cases treatment is as simple as addressing the fact they have this disorder and why they may have it.
A recent study classified nine such classes of behavioral intervention: Success with treatment is generally high and generally fades with age, but it varies depending on the cause of the disorder.
Developmental causes tend to have a lower success rate. Kaolinite became the active ingredient in drugs like Kaopectate and Pepto-Bismol, although the formulations have since found additional active ingredients to replace Kaolinite.
Even today, what could be classified as pica behavior is a normative practice in some cultures as part of their beliefs, healing methods, or religious ceremonies.
Dogs exhibiting this form of pica should be tested for anemia with a CBC or at least hematocrit levels.Although there are many different approaches to learning, there are three basic types of learning theory: behaviorist, cognitive constructivist, and social constructivist.
ABSTRACT. INTRODUCTION: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, in which subtypes have been proposed. Previous studies suggested that gender plays a relevant role in OCD phenotypic expression.
This study aimed to review the literature on gender differences in clinical, genetic or familial aspects of OCD. Pica is the consumption of substances with no significant nutritional value such as soil, soap or ice.
Subtypes are characterized by the substance eaten. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, OCD, is an anxiety disorder and is characterized by recurrent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions).
Repetitive behaviors such as handwashing, counting, checking, or cleaning are often performed with the hope of preventing obsessive thoughts or making them go away. The 3 Main Theories of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder There are many theories about what causes OCD.
S. "Abnormal Psychology, 4th ed." New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Continue Reading. Are OCD and Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder the . John, To you and all who suffer from this form of OCD. There is help for this and in the beginning of this thread I do supply some basic advice on obsessive staring and some of .