The aim of this survey experiment is to establish whether an individuals beliefs about an issue are demonstrated consistantly through their responses to the five questions asked about a particular issue, or whether cognitive dissonance is present. In addition to that, the results of each exclusive group can be compared to eachother, to see whether it affects their answers and subsequently, their attitudes. The results between males and females will not neccesarily be similar or dissimilar, as it is a mutual topic which affects males and femals equally, therefor the discrepancy that may arise between the different results will be due to the individual belief systems and attitude, and not neccesarily their gender. However I do believe that most people do care about the welfare of animals, and I am anticipating a mean score between 3.
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These principles encouraged researchers to work to reduce the number of animals used in experiments to the minimum considered necessary, refine or limit the pain and distress to which animals are exposed, and replace the use of animals with non-animal alternatives when possible.
Despite the attention brought to this issue by Russell and Burch and since, the number of animals used in research and testing has continued to increase, raising serious ethical and scientific issues.
This Overview provides a brief summary of the ethical and scientific considerations regarding the use of animals in research and testing, and accompanies a Collection entitled Animals, Research, and Alternatives: Measuring Progress 50 Years Later, which aims to spur ethical and scientific advancement.
Introduction One of the most influential attempts to examine and affect the use of animals in research can be traced back to, with the publication of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique . William Russell and Rex Burch published this seminal book in response to marked growth in medical and veterinary research and the concomitant increase in the numbers of animals used.
Despite the attention brought to this issue by Russell and Burch, the number of animals used in research and testing has continued to increase. Recent estimates suggest that at least million animals are used each year worldwide .
However, this is likely an underestimate, and it is impossible to accurately quantify the number of animals used in or for experimentation. Full reporting of all animal use is not required or made public in most countries. Nevertheless, based on available information, it is clear that the number of animals used in research has not significantly declined over the past several decades.
In addition, serious questions have been raised about the effectiveness of animal testing and research in predicting anticipated outcomes  — . This two-day symposium aimed to advance the study of the ethical and scientific issues surrounding the use of animals in testing and research, with particular emphasis on the adequacy of current protections and the promise and challenges of developing alternatives to the use of animals in basic research, pharmaceutical research and development, and regulatory toxicology.
Speakers who contributed to the conference reviewed and contributed new knowledge regarding the cognitive and affective capabilities of animals, revealed through ethology, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and related disciplines.
Speakers also explored the dimensions of harm associated with animal research, touching on the ethical implications regarding the use of animals in research. Finally, several contributors presented the latest scientific advances in developing alternatives to the use of animals in pharmaceutical research and development and regulatory toxicity testing.
This Collection combines some papers that were written following this conference with an aim to highlight relevant progress and research.
This Overview provides a brief summary of the ethical and scientific considerations regarding the use of animals in research and testing, some of which are highlighted in the accompanying Collection. Analysis and Discussion Ethical Considerations and Advances in the Understanding of Animal Cognition Apprehension around burgeoning medical research in the late s and the first half of the 20th century sparked concerns over the use of humans and animals in research .
Suspicions around the use of humans were deepened with the revelation of several exploitive research projects, including a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners by the Nazi German regime during World War II and the Tuskegee syphilis study.
These abuses served as the impetus for the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and the resulting Belmont Report  — . Today, these guidelines provide a platform for the protection of human research subjects, including the principles of respect, beneficence, and justice, as well as special protections for vulnerable populations.Harry F.
Harlow (October 31, –) was an American psychologist best known for his studies on affection and development using rhesus monkeys and surrogate wire or terrycloth mothers.
He earned his BA and Ph.D. from Stanford University, and did his research primarily at the University of Wisconsin. Animals in Science / Research. Home; In his review of animal models in psychology, Because rodents and birds are not covered under the Animal Welfare Act.
Science-based assessment of animal welfare: laboratory and during the experiment can lead to non with Broom and Johnson’s deﬁnition of animal welfare as. Mar 19, · Animal experimentation has played a central role in biomedical research throughout history.
For centuries, however, it has also been an issue of heated public and philosophical discussion. The later part of the s was an important era in terms of animal experimentation legislation. Many laws were enacted pertaining to the use and treatment of animals in psychological experimentation.
This Case Study Animal Development and Heritable Traits Lab Report and other 64,+ term papers, In this experiment, we bred wild type flies with apterous (wingless) flies to see what kind of offspring would result. Psychology Era - Animal Welfare Experiment and Prac Report.