S — Source The source in other words also called the sender is the one from whom the thought originates. He is the one who transfers the information to the receiver after carefully putting his thoughts into words.
Growth patterns and interconnectedness of cities Mathematics: The self-similarity can be merely statistical, or moderately strong, or even exact.
One can find examples of continuous self-similarity uniform over applicable scale rangeor the more common discrete self-similarity that manifests itself at a discrete set of scales.
Here again we see a truly ubiquitous feature of our world and once again the fundamental underlying principle can be briefly summarized as: So maybe we are ready to attempt a decoding of the message: This seems to suggest that, whenever possible, nature treats scale in a relational or relative way, rather than in an absolute way.
What is surprising is that most of our major theories in the physical sciences, such as the standard model of particle physics, quantum mechanics, general relativity and the standard model of cosmology, being based mainly on Euclidean geometry and non-Euclidean geometry, all involve, for the most part, absolute global scale when measurements are made in a proper rest frame.
For example, the hydrogen atom is thought to have a fixed Bohr radius for its ground Newcomb s symmetry and a fixed proper mass. So it appears that we have an apparent conflict here between nature and to a restricted sense relativity theory advocating for relative scale, while the majority of dominant physics theories of the 21st century firmly are founded on the assumption of absolute scale.
One should also note here that the equally firm belief among physicists in strict or at least strong reductionism is inextricably intertwined with the assumption of absolute scale. One wonders if there might be a way to resolve this fundamental conflict so that our observations of nature and our theoretical models of how nature works are in less disagreement with each other.
Social psychologist Theodore M. Newcomb took Heider’s idea of balance out of the head of one person and applied it to communication between people. He uses the term symmetry to distinguish it from balance theory and contends that we attempt to influence one another to bring about symmetry (or balance or equilibrium). Newcomb’s ABX model by Theodore M. Newcomb () An Approach to the Study of Communicative Acts It is based on psychological view of communication. The New Comb’s model of communication was introduced by Theodore M Newcomb of the University of Michigan in He gives different approach to the communication process. The main purpose of this theory is to introduce the role of communication in a social relationship (society) and to maintain social equilibrium within the social system.
Happily, I think there most certainly is and it is called conformal geometry, which has the potential to lead us into the less restrictive realm of relative scale without losing the beauty and knowledge-generating power of our best physics theories, although it would require recasting them so that they are compatible with the symmetries of conformal geometry.
Briefly, conformal geometry preserves shapes and angles, but has no fixed lengths, and so it is fully compatible with relative scale. The conformal symmetry group contains the translations, rotations and relativistic boosts that we are most familiar with in the reigning parameter Poincare group, but adds another 5 symmetries: Conformal geometry and conformal field theories have been applied in a somewhat restricted manner in quantum electrodynamics, general relativity with limited successand various theories of particle physics.
It is the dilatation symmetry often simply called dilation symmetry that is of most interest to us here. Dilation invariance means that a shape, or the physical properties of a system, or relevant laws and processes remain the same for different changes of scale.
So here we once again meet our theme: Past theoretical applications of scale invariance, self-similarity and conformal symmetries have usually been restricted to finite ranges of scale. The examples of the data tables that conform to the logarithmic law and the well-recognized examples self-similarity observed in nature cover a vast range of total combined scale, but individually the examples are usually limited to either the microscopic, macroscopic or cosmic ranges of scale.
This is probably due to the fact that the world is a very complicated place with a large number of distinct structures, laws and processes that must compete interactively, and this is likely to interfere with full conformal symmetry.
So perhaps we must be satisfied with partial and broken forms of conformal symmetry. And yet, one wonders if nature might have one more spectacular surprise in store for us.
It is entirely undemonstrated; it may never be proved.Newcomb’s ABX model by Theodore M. Newcomb () An Approach to the Study of Communicative Acts It is based on psychological view of communication.
Newcomb considered communication as a way in which people adjust to their environment and to each other. The New Comb’s model of communication was introduced by Theodore M Newcomb of the University of Michigan in He gives different approach to the communication process.
The main purpose of this theory is to introduce the role of communication in a social relationship (society) and to maintain social equilibrium within the social system. Newcomb's wry comment that waiting for such studies to ripen on the vine had notably shortened his list of publica- tions relative to peers who completed a number of experi-.
Newcomb's symmetry theory extends balance theory by adding that if there was a strong bond between the two people, the imbalance would be felt (more or less) intensely.
more. Newcomb says, “The likelihood of a symmetry-directed A to B re X varies as a multiple function of the perceived discrepancy (i.e., inversely with perceived symmetry), with valence toward B and with valence toward X” (Newcomb, , p.
). Discuss the following theories: Heider’s Balance Theory Newcomb’s Symmetry Theory Osgood’s Congruity Theory Festinger’s Theory of Cognitive Dissonance.