What is the advantage of holding public meetings? They can raise the credibility of the needs assessment process by enhancing openness and inclusion These activities are inexpensive and relatively easy-to-arrange Community members who were not selected for planning group membership can participate Forums and hearings can raise the level of awareness and understanding about your issue and the community planning initiative These methods can be a way to build community ownership of and investment in your issue and the planning process The meetings may reveal issues that warrant further investigation How can we make sure the forum or hearing goes smoothly? The planning group and other organizers agree on the purpose of the hearing and are committed to being present The ground rules should be decided and announced prior to the meeting, and reiterated at the meeting; this includes how speakers will be identified, time allotted for speakers, whether written testimony is required, the format for questions and answers Put the rules in writing and have them available at the meeting for latecomers Ensure that the event is widely publicized, and not in just the "mainstream" media outlets; consider flyers at community-based organizations, ads in newspapers serving particular communities each planning group member can be responsible for spreading the word Choose the location with the idea of encouraging community participation while still meeting the comfort needs of the participants Consider having the planning group travel to different sites throughout their area Of what pitfalls should we be aware?
Introduction Participant observation, for many years, has been a hallmark of both anthropological and sociological studies. In recent years, the field of education has seen an increase in the number of qualitative studies that include participant observation as a way to collect information.
Qualitative methods of data collection, such as interviewing, observation, and document analysis, have been included under the umbrella term of "ethnographic methods" in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to discuss observation, particularly participant observation, as a tool for collecting data in qualitative research studies.
Aspects of observation discussed herein include various definitions of participant observation, some history of its use, the purposes for which such observation is used, the stances or roles of the observer, and additional information about when, what, and how to observe.
Further information is provided to address keeping field notes and their use in writing up the final story. Participant observation is the process enabling researchers to learn about the activities of the people under study in the natural setting through observing and participating in those activities.
Most anthropologists, he notes, need to maintain a sense of objectivity through distance. He defines participant observation as the process of establishing rapport within a community and learning to act in such a way as to blend into the community so that its members will act naturally, then removing oneself from the setting or community to immerse oneself in the data to understand what is going on and be able to write about it.
He includes more than just observation in the process of being a participant observer; he includes observation, natural conversations, interviews of various sorts, checklists, questionnaires, and unobtrusive methods.
FINE, in part, defines "peopled ethnography" as being based on extensive observation in the field, a labor-intensive activity that sometimes lasts for years. In this description of the observation process, one is expected to become a part of the group being studied to the extent that the members themselves include the observer in the activity and turn to the observer for information about how the group is operating.
He also indicates that it is at this point, when members begin to ask the observer questions about the group and when they begin to include the observer in the "gossip," that it is time to leave the field. This process he describes of becoming a part of the community, while observing their behaviors and activities, is called participant observation.
The History of Participant Observation as a Method Participant observation is considered a staple in anthropological studies, especially in ethnographic studies, and has been used as a data collection method for over a century. During this time, CUSHING learned the language, participated in the customs, was adopted by a pueblo, and was initiated into the priesthood.
Because he did not publish extensively about this culture, he was criticized as having gone native, meaning that he had lost his objectivity and, therefore, his ability to write analytically about the culture. In my own research, I have been hesitant to write about religious ceremonies or other aspects of indigenous culture that I have observed, for example, for fear of relating information that my participants or other community members might feel should not be shared.
When I first began conducting my ethnographic study of the Muscogee culture, I was made aware of several incidents in which researchers were perceived to have taken information they had obtained through interviews or observations and had published their findings without permission of the Creek people or done so without giving proper credit to the participants who had shared their lives with the researchers.
She took a job as a rent collector to interact with the people in buildings and offices and took a job as a seamstress in a sweatshop to better understand their lives. These sociological studies have brought into question the stance or positioning of the observer and generated more creative approaches to lending voice to others in the presentation of the findings of their studies GAITAN, By the s, participant observation was widely used by both anthropologists and sociologists.
The previously noted studies were some of the first to use the process of participant observation to obtain data for understanding various cultures and, as such, are considered to be required reading in anthropology classes.
Why Use Observation to Collect Data? Observation methods are useful to researchers in a variety of ways.
They provide researchers with ways to check for nonverbal expression of feelings, determine who interacts with whom, grasp how participants communicate with each other, and check for how much time is spent on various activities SCHMUCK, They suggest that participant observation be used as a way to increase the validity 1 of the study, as observations may help the researcher have a better understanding of the context and phenomenon under study.
Validity is stronger with the use of additional strategies used with observation, such as interviewing, document analysis, or surveys, questionnaires, or other more quantitative methods. It makes it possible to collect different types of data.
It reduces the incidence of "reactivity" or people acting in a certain way when they are aware of being observed. It helps the researcher to develop questions that make sense in the native language or are culturally relevant.
Participant observation also enables the researcher to collect both quantitative and qualitative data through surveys and interviews.
These include that it affords access to the "backstage culture" p. DeWALT and DeWALT add that it improves the quality of data collection and interpretation and facilitates the development of new research questions or hypotheses p.
To alleviate this potential bias problem, BERNARD suggests pretesting informants or selecting participants who are culturally competent in the topic being studied.The most common method–and the easiest to apply–is the use of only those cases with complete information. Researchers either consciously or by.
are the most standardized way of collecting observation data and include both preset questions and responses. These forms are typically used for collecting data that can be.
To that end, various approaches, tools and methodologies aimed at gathering or collecting data have been formulated. THE MEANING OF DATA COLLECTION. The data we collected is comprised of formal eviction records from 48 states and the District of Columbia. Eviction records include information related to an eviction court case, such as defendant and plaintiff names, the defendant’s address, monetary judgment information, and an outcome for the case.
Volume 6, No. 2, Art. 43 – May Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method. Barbara B. Kawulich. Abstract: Observation, particularly participant observation, has been used in a variety of disciplines as a tool for collecting data about people, processes, and cultures in qualitative caninariojana.com paper provides a look at various definitions of participant observation, the.
Methods of Data Collection- Primary and Secondary Data. There are two types of data Primary Data and Secondary Data → caninariojana.comy Data → Raw data or primary data is a term for data collected at source.
This type of information is obtained directly from first hand sources by means of surveys, observations and experimentation and not subjected to any processing or manipulation and also called.