The Tragedy of the Commons Science 13, December
With great power comes great responsibility, and discoveries that we hope can help sentient creatures also have the potential to result in massive suffering. Evidence and Import ," Luke Muehlhauser and Anna Salamon propose " differential intellectual progress " as a way to reduce risks associated with development of artificial intelligence.
From Facing the Intelligence Explosion: Differential intellectual progress consists in prioritizing risk-reducing intellectual progress over risk-increasing intellectual progress.
As applied to AI risks in particular, a Intellectual decisions essay of differential intellectual progress would recommend that our progress on the scientific, philosophical, and technological problems of AI safety outpace our progress on the problems of AI capability [ I personally would replace "risk" with "suffering" in that quote, but the general idea is clear.
Encouraging more reflection Differential intellectual progress is important beyond AI, although because AI is likely to control the future of Earth's light cone absent a catastrophe before then, ultimately all other applications matter through their influence on AI.
At a very general level, I think it's important to inspire deeper philosophical circumspection. The world is extremely complex, and making a positive impact requires a lot of knowledge and thought.
We need more minds exploring big-picture questions like What kinds of futures do we want to see and want to avoid?
What are their probabilities? How much control do we have over different aspects of the future? Which are mostly inevitable and which are more path-dependent? How can we avoid overconfidence and optimism bias in our expectations?
Are there interventions that can be helpful across a broad range of possible scenarios? What political, social, and cultural institutions can we build to more reliably promote mutually beneficial cooperation?
As these questions suggest, greater reflectiveness by humanity can be a positive-sum i. In an AI arms racethere's pressure to produce something that can win, even if it's much less good than what your team would ideally want and gives no consideration to what the other teams want.
If the arms race can be constrained, then there's more time to engage in positive-sum compromise on how AI should be shaped. This benefits all parties in expectation, including suffering reducers, because AIs built in a hurry are less likely to include safety measures against sentient science simulations, suffering subroutinesand so on.
Ideas for improving reflectiveness MIRI does important work on philosophical and strategic issues related to AI and has written much on this topic. Below I discuss some other, broader approaches to differential intellectual progress, but in general, it's plausible that MIRI's direct focus on AI is among the most effective.
Liberal-arts education The social sciences and humanities contain a wealth of important insights into human values, strategies for pro-social behavior, and generally what philosopher Nick Bostrom calls "crucial considerations" for understanding how the universe works and how to make a positive impact on it.
It's good to encourage people to explore this material, such as through liberal-arts education. The liberal arts are really the core of higher education. Vocational education is an instrument, but the liberal arts represent the best of our values and they develop of critical thinking[.
T]he liberal arts and the humanities and social sciences are so critical when higher education is often viewed primarily as vocational. Of course, a pure focus on humanities or social sciences is not a good idea either, because the hard sciences teach a clarity of thinking that can dissolve some of the confusions that afflict standard philosophy.
Moreover, since one of the ultimate goals is to shape technological progress in more positive and cooperative directions, reflective thinkers need a deep understanding of science and technology, not just of David Hume and Peter Singer.
Big-picture, cosmopolitan thinking Beyond what students learn in school, there's opportunity to expand people's minds more generally. When scientists, policy makers, voters, and other decision-makers are aware of more ways of looking at the world, they're more likely to be open-minded and consider how their actions affect all parties involved, even those who may feel differently from themselves.
Tolerance and cosmopolitan understanding seem important for reducing zero-sum "us vs. TED talksEdgeand thousands of other forums like these are important ways to expand minds, advance social discourse on big-picture issues, and hopefully, knock down boundaries between people.THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMON REVISITED by Beryl Crowe () reprinted in MANAGING THE COMMONS by Garrett Hardin and John Baden W.H.
Freeman, ; ISBN Intellectual property can be instrumental to the value of any business. The ability to protect a business or an individual’s ideas, inventions and original processes is something that is considered essential to many establishments, particularly those that rely on innovative ideas and products as.
Many students find essay writing to be an especially daunting task.
Depending on the essay topic, research can take anywhere from a few hours to several days and . WHAT IS A CRITICAL THINKING ESSAY? Many college assignments require you to support a thesis.
The concept of a critical thinking essay is that you start without an end in mind.
You don't necessarily know how you feel about a subject or what you want to say about the subject you allow the research and your own thinking to determine the outcome.
What is the importance of good decision making ill tell you making decisions has an effect on more than just you, a decision can affect you for the rest of your life, and intuition decision making can cause problems.3/5(5). THIS essay examines the idea of tolerance in our advanced industrial society.
The conclusion reached is that the realization of the objective of tolerance would call for intolerance toward prevailing policies, attitudes, opinions, and the extension of tolerance to policies, attitudes, and opinions which are outlawed or .