On its most comprehensive level, it may be read as an allegorytaking the form of a journey through hellpurgatoryand paradise. The poem amazes by its array of learning, its penetrating and comprehensive analysis of contemporary problems, and its inventiveness of language and imagery. By choosing to write his poem in the Italian vernacular rather than in Latin, Dante decisively influenced the course of literary development.
This and a similar crisis in France were settled by a compromise. Election by the cathedral chapter was to be free; lay investiture was waived, but homage before the bestowal of the fief was allowed. Meanwhile Paschal, at odds with the German king Henry V, who was demanding imperial coronation, suddenly offered to renounce all church property held by the king if lay investiture were also abandoned.
Henry accepted, but the bishops refused the terms; thereupon the King seized the Pope who, under duress, allowed lay investiture.
By this time, however, a large majority of the bishops were Gregorians, and the Pope was persuaded to retract. According to this agreement free election by ecclesiastics was to be followed by investiture without staff and ring and homage to the king.
This ended the strife of 50 years, in which pamphleteers on both sides had revived every kind of claim to supremacy and God-given authority. Nominally a compromise, the concordat was in effect a victory for the monarch, for he could usually control the election.
Nevertheless, the war of ideologies had exposed the weakness of the emperor who in the last resort had to admit the spiritual authority of the pope, and the struggle left intact the claim of the church to moderate the whole of society.
The Crusades The authority of the papacy and the relative decline of the empire also became clear in the unforeseen emergence of the Crusades as a major preoccupation of Europe. Although this appeal may have been the decisive motive for the Crusade, there were obvious advantages in diverting the Normans of Sicily and other turbulent warriors from Europe to wage a sacred war elsewhere.
Urban's celebrated call to the Crusade at Clermont France in was unexpectedly effective, placing the pope at the head of a large army of volunteers. Even though the capture of Jerusalem and the establishment of a Latin kingdom in Palestine were balanced by disasters and quarrels, the papacy had gained greatly in prestige.
Though Germany as a whole had remained aloof, a pope had for the first time stood out as the leader of a European endeavor. The Crusades, with their combination of idealism, ambition, heroism, cruelty, and folly are a medieval phenomenon and, as such, outside modern man's experience.
But they were part of the religious background for two centuries and added greatly to the anxieties, both spiritual and financial, of the papacy. The church of the late Middle Ages The Proto-Renaissance The 12th century, or, more correctly, the centuryhas been called the first Renaissance.
A more accurate title would be the adolescence of Europein which higher education, techniques of thought and speech, and a fresh attack upon the old problems of philosophy and theology appeared for the first time in postclassical Europe.
All these activities were carried out by clerics and controlled by churchmen. The focus of educational activity was the cathedral school, and the new agent of instruction was the semiprofessional, unattached teacher, such as the French philosopher-theologians Berengarius, Roscelin, and Abelard, though monks such as Lanfranc, Anselm of Canterbury, and Hugh and Richard of the Monastery of St.
Victor, Paris, still had a share.
Philosophy was revived through the development of logic and dialectic, which were applied to doctrines of the faith, either as formal exercises, Augustinian speculation, or critical reformulation.
From onward theology, in the modern sense of the word first used by Abelardemerged. The teachings of Scripture and of the early Church Fathers on the various doctrines were consolidated and organized in works called Sentences. The first handbook of theology was composed by Abelard.
Finally, Peter Lombard bishop c. His classic manual may be said, in modern terms, to have created the syllabus of theological study for the age that followed. Together with the expansion of logic--brought about by the arrival through Muslim sources of what was called the new logic of Aristotle--and the emergence of the university, the Sentences ended the era of literary, humanistic, and monastic culture and opened that of the formal, impersonal, Scholastic age.
Reformed monasticism The most distinctive feature of the centuryaccording to some scholars, was the appearance and diffusion of reformed monasticism. Benedict, with emphasis on simplicity, poverty, and manual work.
The addition of lay brothers tapped a large reservoir in an age of economic and demographic expansion and the organization of the order--with annual visitations and a general chapter--ensured good discipline and enabled the order to accommodate itself to the strain of a vast family of houses scattered throughout the Latin Church.
Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux from towho was for 30 years the untitled religious leader of Europe. Owing to his influence, other new orders, such as the Premonstratensians, the English Gilbertines, and the military Knights Templars, accepted or imitated Cistercian practices.Inferno (pronounced ; Italian for "Hell") is the first part of Dante Alighieri's 14th-century epic poem Divine caninariojana.com is followed by Purgatorio and caninariojana.com Inferno tells the journey of Dante through Hell, guided by the ancient Roman poet caninariojana.com the poem, Hell is depicted as nine concentric circles of torment located within the Earth; it is the "realm of those who have rejected.
The Influence of Dante's Inferno - Dante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy is an epic poem that begins with the Inferno. The Inferno is an extremely influential part of European literature. The Divine Comedy (Italian: Divina Commedia [diˈviːna komˈmɛːdja]) is an Italian long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c.
and completed in , a year before his death in It is widely considered to be the preeminent work in Italian literature and one of the greatest works of world literature.
The poem's imaginative vision of the afterlife is representative of the. Italian literature: Italian literature, the body of written works produced in the Italian language that had its beginnings in the 13th century. Until that time nearly all literary work composed in Europe during the Middle Ages was written in Latin.
Moreover, it was predominantly practical in nature and produced by. The history of the term humanism is complex but enlightening. It was first employed (as humanismus) by 19th-century German scholars to designate the Renaissance emphasis on classical studies in caninariojana.com studies were pursued and endorsed by educators known, as early as the late 15th century, as umanisti—that is, professors or students of Classical literature.
Inferno (pronounced ; Italian for "Hell") is the first part of Italian writer Dante Alighieri's 14th-century epic poem Divine caninariojana.com is followed by Purgatorio and caninariojana.com Inferno tells the journey of Dante through Hell, guided by the ancient Roman poet caninariojana.com the poem, Hell is depicted as nine concentric circles of torment located within the Earth; it is the "realm of those who.